Irritant/allergenàantigen presenting cells(to allergens)àT helper 1 cellsà specific immune responses to allergens

Irritant/allergenàantigen presenting cells(to allergens)àT helper 2 cellsàgeneral inflammatory responseà bronchial constriction

Irritant/allergenàIgE productionà beta 2 receptor inhibitorà decreased ability for smooth muscle in lungs to relax

Irritant/allergenàLeukotrienes and histamineàincreased neutrophilsàincreased inflammatory mediatorsà increased vascular permeiablilty and increased bronchoconstrictionà increased airway resistance

Irritant/allergenà Leukotrienes and histamineàincreased neutrophils,eosinophils and mast cellsàproinflammatory activitiesàincreased bronchoconstriction and mucus productionà increased airway resistance

Irritant/allergenà eosinophils and mast cells productionàdesquamation, sub epithelial fibrosis, smooth muscle hypertrophyànarrowing of air way resistance, loss of epithelial derived relaxing factors and prostaglandin E2à bronchoconstriction, bronchioles unable to relax and mucus build up.




A. Name of disease:Asthma
B. Root cause of disease:Genetic,Environmental,Hygiene factors
C. Affected cell types/tissues/organs/systems:Affects the respiratory system,Lungs,seeing as it is an allergy affects certain white blood cells,Bronchiole lining
D. Historical background: It is believed that asthma was discovered in egypt in ancient times.Hippocrates was later known to have given the name asthma.In the 1880’s Dr. J. B. Berkart used IV therapy to administer doses of a drug called pilocarpin and in 1886, F.H. Bosworth theorized a connection between asthma and hay fever. Epinephrine was first used as a treatment of asthma in 1905, and again for acute asthma in 1910
E. Common symptoms:Wheezing,Coughing,Chest Tightness,and shortness of breath
F. Standard treatments:Albuterol inhalers or nebulizer treatments.
G. Current research:There is current research on how the disease affects multiple races(Nguyen & Burchard 2012,Wechsler et. al. 2011)as well as how difficult it is to develop medicine for this disease(Mullane, 2011).
H. References:

Mullane, K., (2011) The increasing challenge of discovering asthma drugs,//Biochemical Pharmacology//, 82(6), 586-599.

Nguyen, E. A.,& Burchard, E.G., (2012) Asthma Research for All of the United States,, 25 (3), 128-131.
,; ,,., , ,& Israel,E.(2011)Impact of Race on Asthma Treatment Failures in the Asthma Clinical Research Network,. 184 (11), 1247-1253.